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ABBEXA Human Complement C4 Protein

Streak is an all out protein visual test that quickly recognizes protein deposits left on food contact surfaces subsequent to cleaning. Protein is a troublesome food buildup to eliminate. Most allergens are proteins, so fast confirmation of surface cleanliness limits the gamble of cross-pollution to without allergen items. Involving FLASH consistently additionally lessens the chance for organic tainting.

Application

Food contact surfaces might show up clean however can in any case contain hints of protein buildup. Undetected, this can give a supplement source to unsafe microorganisms to develop.

Protein tests assist with checking cleaning viability by recognizing protein buildups left on food contact surfaces in the wake of cleaning.

Protein is a troublesome food buildup to eliminate. What’s more, since most food allergens are proteins, ordinary testing can be a powerful strategy for confirming cleaning techniques, freely approved to really eliminate allergens, are reliably applied as a component of a HACCP allergen the executives program.

Elements and Benefits

  • Fast test results with clear variety understanding
  • Check cleaning viability rapidly and reliably, considering quick remedial activity while limiting vacation between creation change-overs.
  • Acquire introductory room temperature results down to 20 μg in 10 minutes or less.
  • Recognizes protein buildups including certain “Enormous 8” food allergens
    Streak testing can be integrated as a normalized part of your HACCP allergen the board program. What’s more, have confidence realizing you consent to SQFI direction for checking satisfactory expulsion of allergenic material.

Assemble a much more far reaching and adaptable HACCP the executives program.

Streak is an ideal supplement to MVP ICON ATP testing, which is a regularly involved technique for checking generally speaking natural cleanliness. Yet, ATP tests can′t measure protein, which is a troublesome food buildup to eliminate from surfaces even subsequent to cleaning. Utilized routinely, both can be integrated into approved cleaning systems (SSOPs) to limit the gamble of natural pollution and cross-defilement to sans allergen items.

Human Complement C4 Protein

Reconstitute to the first focus in ddH2O. Assuming further weakenings are required, weaken in 20 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, pH 8.0, to a convergence of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. Don’t vortex.

Human Complement C4 (C4) ELISA Kit

Human Complement C4 (C4) ELISA Kit is an ELISA Kit for the in vitro quantitative estimation of Human Complement C4 (C4) fixations in serum, plasma and other organic liquids. This examine has high responsiveness and incredible particularity for recognition of Complement C4
No critical cross-reactivity or impedance between Complement C4 and analogs was observed.

The strength of the not entirely set in stone by the pace of action misfortune. The misfortune rate is under 5% inside the lapse date under fitting stockpiling conditions. To limit execution vacillations, activity methodology and lab conditions ought to be completely controlled. It is likewise emphatically recommended that the entire measure is performed by a similar client all through.

Unit Components

The pack parts recorded are for reference as it were. The item manual might contrast marginally. The item ought to be utilized as expressed on the item manual included and conveyed along with the item.

  • Pre-covered 96-Well Microplate
  • Standard
  • Standard Diluent Buffer
  • Wash Buffer
  • Location Reagent A
  • Location Reagent B
  • Diluent A
  • Diluent B
  • TMB Substrate
  • Stop Solution
  • Plate Sealer

Material Required But Not Provided

  • 37°C hatchery
  • Multi and single channel pipettes and sterile pipette tips
  • Spurt bottle or mechanized microplate washer
  • 1.5 ml tubes
  • Refined water
  • Spongy channel papers
  • 100 ml and 1 liter graduated chambers
  • Microplate peruser (frequency: 450 nm)
  • ELISA Shaker

Reagent Preparation

This methodology is accommodated reference as it were. The item manual might contrast somewhat. The item ought to be utilized as expressed on the item manual included and conveyed along with the item.
1) Standard: Prepare the norm with the suggested volume of Standard Diluent Buffer, to make the standard arrangement. Then, at that point, utilize the Standard Diluent cushion to do sequential weakenings of the standard arrangement, as taught in the Protocol.
2) Wash Buffer: Dilute the concentrated Wash Buffer with refined water, as taught in the Protocol.
3) Detection Reagent Preparation: Calculate the complete volume of working arrangement required. Weaken Detection Reagent An and Detection Reagent B with Diluent An and Diluent B, individually, at 1:100.
Measure Procedure This system is accommodated reference as it were. The item manual might vary somewhat. The item ought to be utilized as expressed on the item manual included and conveyed along with the item.
1) Set norm, test tests and control wells.
2) Aliquot 100 µl of weakened norm into the standard wells.
3) Aliquot 100 µl of Standard Diluent support into control (zero) well.

Human Complement 4 (C4) Purified protein

HC411-R-100 Alpha Diagnostics 100 ug 347 EUR

Human Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RD-C4-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 478 EUR

Human Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RD-C4-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 662 EUR

Human Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

DLR-C4-Hu-48T DL Develop 48T 479 EUR

Human Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

DLR-C4-Hu-96T DL Develop 96T 621 EUR

Human Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RDR-C4-Hu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 500 EUR

Human Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RDR-C4-Hu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 692 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RD-C4-Mu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 489 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RD-C4-Mu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 677 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

DLR-C4-Mu-48T DL Develop 48T 489 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

DLR-C4-Mu-96T DL Develop 96T 635 EUR

Rat Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

DLR-C4-Ra-48T DL Develop 48T 508 EUR

Rat Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

DLR-C4-Ra-96T DL Develop 96T 661 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RDR-C4-Mu-48Tests Reddot Biotech 48 Tests 511 EUR

Mouse Complement Component 4 (C4) ELISA Kit

RDR-C4-Mu-96Tests Reddot Biotech 96 Tests 709 EUR

Human Complement C4 Protein

20-abx060108 Abbexa
  • 258.00 EUR
  • 565.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg

Human Complement C4 Protein

abx060232-1mg Abbexa 1 mg 565 EUR

Human Complement C4 Antibody

11231-05011 AssayPro 150 ug 217 EUR

4) Aliquot 100 µl of weakened examples into the example wells. Hatch for 1 hr at 37 °C.
5) Aliquot 100 µl of Detection Reagent A to each well. Hatch for 1 hr at 37 °C.
6) Wash multiple times.
7) Aliquot 100 µl of Detection Reagent B to each well. Hatch for 30 mins at 37 °C.
8) Wash multiple times.
9) Aliquot 90 µl of TMB Substrate to each well. Hatch for 10-20 mins at 37 °C.
10) Aliquot 50 µl of Stop Solution.
11) Measure the OD at 450 nm.

Blog cell proliferation reagent wst 1 pcr machines

FastAmp Plant Direct PCR Kit .

Viral vehicle media (VTM) was immunized with a nasopharyngeal swab and spiked with RSV An and Influenza B (Hong Kong) infection reconstituted from Helix Elite Inactivated Standard, Inactivated Influenza A/B and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. This significant level infection test (1 × 103 duplicates/μl) was weakened 1:10 and 1:100 in VTM to make the medium-and low-level infection tests. In equal, two clients made example lysates from the spiked VTM tests utilizing the XpressAmp Direct Amplification Reagents. The two clients then, at that point, distinguished the presence of RSV An and Influenza B by RT-qPCR utilizing GoTaq Probe 1-Step qPCR System  enhanced with the XpressAmp Solution. N=6.

Enhancement of Synthetic SARS-CoV-2 RNA from XpressAmp Lysates.

Viral vehicle media (VTM) was immunized with a nasopharyngeal swab and spiked with Synthetic SARS-CoV-2 RNA Control 2 (Twist Biosciences, last fixation 1 × 104 duplicates/μl). Spiked VTM tests were lysed by joining 5μl of test with 5μl of arranged XpressAmp™ Lysis Buffer and hatched at room temperature for 10 minutes. Following brooding, 5μl of test lysate was added to a monoplex GoTaq Probe 1-Step RT-qPCR (25μl) containing XpressAmp Solution and enhanced utilizing the 2019 nCoV RUO pack  and warm cycled by the CDC convention. N=8 enhancement imitates.

Direct PCR Application Notes for Extended Sample Types

Following the advancement of the sans extraction work process for nasopharyngeal swabs in transport media, we keep on investigating other example applications for the XpressAmp reagents and distribute the outcomes as short Application Notes. Investigate these Application Notes to get familiar with how you can utilize the XpressAmp™ pack to set up an assortment of test types for PCR or qPCR intensification and examination.

FastAmp Plant Direct PCR and Genotyping Solution

FastAmp Plant Direct PCR/Genotyping Solution for is intended for quick cell lysis and DNA partition at the same time without the need of DNA extraction steps . It contains extremely low centralization of less poisonous synthetic compounds for direct DNA intensification of genomic DNA from different plant tissues. No hotness treatment and no end cradle is required, saving critical time. FastAmp Plant Direct PCR/Genotyping Solution has been improved with FastAmp® Plant Direct PCR pack and FastAmp Plant Tissue/Seed Genotyping PCR unit.

Features

  • Basic DNA Preparation — No DNA extraction required
  • Quick Protocol — Tissue lysis/Genomic DNA prepared for PCR in 3 min
  • Contains non-poisonous answers for lysis and DNA planning
  • Easy to use for single cylinder Multiplexing (single cylinder, tube strips, 96-well, or 384-well )
  • Save huge time and subsidizing (no globule or twist segment, insignificant involved time )
  • Predictable outcomes

FastAmp Plant Direct PCR Kit, Intact Genomics
FastAmp plant direct PCR pack is appropriate for enhancement of DNA straightforwardly from plant tests without filtering DNA.

Direct PCR-compelling reason need to refine DNA.

  • Extraordinarily designed Taq DNA polymerase with most elevated responsiveness and particularity
  • Short PCR convention times
  • Ace blend design in with premixed gel stacking color to diminish cross-pollution and test taking care of mistakes
  • 5X wizardry enhancerfor high GC containing DNA intensification
  • Quality control is performed following the creation of each new parcel of item to guarantee that it satisfies the
  • quality guidelines and details assigned for the item
  • FastAmp plant direct PCR ace blend (2X)
  • Weakening cradle
  • Control groundwork blend (25 µM each)
  • Sans nuclease water

FastAmp plant direct PCR pack

FastAmp plant direct PCR pack is a simple and hearty technique to intensify DNA pieces from plant tissues with high explicitness and high awareness without the need of confounded DNA cleansing advances. The high level plan of this unit additionally permits quick PCR cycling conditions without compromising PCR awareness, particularity and yield. The FastAmp plant direct PCR pack is an ideal and incredible asset for high-throughput genotyping, DNA enhancement, and plant genome investigation.

Plant Preservative Mixture

PCT01 Plant Cell Technologies 30 ml 90 EUR

Plant Preservative Mixture

PCT02 Plant Cell Technologies 100 ml 749 EUR

Plant Preservative Mixture

PCT03 Plant Cell Technologies 250 ml 310 EUR

Plant Preservative Mixture

PCT04 Plant Cell Technologies 500 ml 450 EUR

Plant Preservative Mixture

PCT05 Plant Cell Technologies 1000 ml 799 EUR

Supreme Plant Tissue Culture Grade Agar

PCTA100 Plant Cell Technologies 500g 120 EUR

Supreme Plant Tissue Culture Grade Agar

PCTA500 Plant Cell Technologies 1000g 150 EUR

AXYPREP MAG PLANT DNA-10 PREP

MAG-PLANT-gDNA-10 CORNING 1/pk 72 EUR

AXYPREP MAG PLANT DNA-384 PREP

MAG-PLANT-gDNA-M CORNING 1/pk 742 EUR

AXYPREP MAG PLANT DNA-96 PREP

MAG-PLANT-gDNA-S CORNING 1/pk 415 EUR

Eplivanserin (mixture)

HY-10792A MedChemExpress 5mg 165 EUR

Universal qPCR Mixture

QPCR1000-UNIV Bio Basic 4X1.25ml 276.2 EUR

NTP Mixture (10mM)

ND0056 Bio Basic 0.5ml 91.76 EUR

NTP Mixture (25mM)

ND0057 Bio Basic 0.5ml 154.4 EUR

dNTP mixture (10mM)

DD0056 Bio Basic 0.5ml 63.05 EUR

dNTP mixture (25mM)

DD0057 Bio Basic 0.5ml 79.58 EUR

CASEIN MEAT MIXTURE

C03-106-10kg Alphabiosciences 10 kg 1018 EUR

CASEIN MEAT MIXTURE

C03-106-2kg Alphabiosciences 2kg 260 EUR

FastAmp plant direct PCR unit is reasonable for enhancement of DNA straightforwardly from plant tests without cleansing DNA. This unit depends on uniquely designed Taq DNA polymerase, exclusive cradle framework, dNTP, MgCl₂, PCR facilitators and color blend which makes it incredibly powerful and open minded toward plant PCR inhibitors like complex polysaccharides, polyphenols and others. This unit has been tried with leaves and seeds from a wide assortment of plant species.

Blog cell proliferation reagent wst 1 pcr machines

Mouse IgG (H and L chains) Peroxidase Monoclonal Antibody

Monoclonal antibodies are created by infusing an antigen into a host creature to start a humoral safe reaction. In many methodology, spleen cells from these hosts are combined in vitro with refined harmful myeloma cells. Remarkable cell clones are secluded and those that endure the combination step are known as hybridomas. Hybridomas are godlike as a result of their myeloma attributes and are effortlessly proliferated in culture. Due to their B cell properties, some hybridoma clones proceed to combine and emit hereditarily homogeneous antibodies against a solitary epitope, called monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are homologous to regular immunoglobulins from the source vaccinated creature, yet dissimilar to polyclonal antibodies cleaned from serum, they are well defined for a solitary epitope and give a stable long haul supply of delivered by hybridomas in vitro. We offer a wide scope of monoclonal antibodies for use in different applications.

Sera from mouse

Sera from mouse has been utilized to obstruct vague antigen restricting in immunohistochemistry. It has additionally been utilized as a control in AdV killing counter acting agent measure.
Mouse serum is utilized in an assortment of mouse cell culture frameworks to concentrate on viral disease, hindrance and transduction processes.

What is the class (isotype) and additionally subclass of the essential counter acting agent?

This question is basically significant while working with monoclonal antibodies. Polyclonal antibodies, be that as it may, are normally IgG class immunoglobulins. Hence, the optional antibodies will chiefly be an enemy of IgG counter acting agent.

Monoclonal antibodies are most usually evolved in mice and every so often in rodents, hamsters, or bunnies. For instance, assuming the essential monoclonal neutralizer is mouse IgM, one would need an optional immune response that responds with mouse IgM (hostile to Mouse IgM).

In the event that the essential monoclonal is one of the mouse IgG subclasses, practically any enemy of mouse IgG optional immune response ought to tie to it. In the event that the subclass of the essential immunizer isn’t known, then enemy of Mouse IgG F(ab) auxiliary antibodies might be utilized since they perceive most mouse immunoglobulin subclasses.

There are many classes and subclasses of human and mouse IgG(s). Picking an optional might be troublesome. Be that as it may, one normal element among these IgG(s) are the light chains (kappa and lambda). At the end of the day, IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE all have either kappa or lambda light chains. The weighty chain, nonetheless, is class explicit.

In what species was the essential immunizer created?

Optional antibodies are coordinated against the types of the essential neutralizer. Accordingly, you will require an auxiliary counter acting agent that is brought up in an animal varieties not the same as the host types of the essential neutralizer. For instance, assuming that your essential immune response is brought up in a mouse, you will require an enemy of mouse auxiliary immunizer brought up in goat, bunny, and so on.

Optional Antibodies

Optional antibodies are polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies that tight spot to essential antibodies or neutralizer parts, like the Fc or Fab locales. They are regularly named with tests that make them helpful for discovery, decontamination, or arranging applications.
We offer optional antibodies from an assortment of host animal varieties. Our polyclonal optional antibodies are delivered from the serum of host creatures like mice, hares, goats, and sheep. While, our monoclonal optional antibodies are delivered from mouse hybridoma clones.

Formed ANTIBODIES AND PROBES

We offer a huge arrangement of formed antibodies. A formed counter acting agent is a monoclonal or polyclonal immunizer connected to a mark and utilized for recognition in an assorted scope of measure procedures. The particular utility of an optional immunizer relies on its formed probe(s). Tests are atoms that help different identification innovations. The most widely recognized discovery frameworks for formed optional antibodies are colorimetric or fluorescent.

Colorimetric measures are commonly founded on the utilization of soluble phosphatase (ALP) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or its subordinates. The biotin avidin (streptavidin) form restricting framework is frequently used to enhance the colorimetric sign for ALP or HRP. The most well-known fluorescent measures use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Rhodamine or its subsidiary, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC), cyanine (Cy3), or phycoerythrin (R-PE).

T4 UvsX DNA Recombinase - 100µg

3562 Intact Genomics 1/EA 357 EUR

Human Genomic DNA

BIO-35025 Bioline 500µl @ 200ng/µl Ask for price

Human Genomic DNA

X11000 EpiGentek 0.2 ml Ask for price

Genomic DNA Kit

20-abx098076 Abbexa
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

Human Brain Genomic DNA

X11001 EpiGentek 10 µg Ask for price

Plant Genomic DNA Kit

20-abx098077 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 230.00 EUR
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit

20-abx098080 Abbexa
  • 105.00 EUR
  • 244.00 EUR
  • 2 rxns
  • 50 rxns

Micro Genomic DNA Kit

20-abx098242 Abbexa
  • 105.00 EUR
  • 328.00 EUR
  • 2 rxns
  • 50 rxns

Blood Genomic DNA Kit

abx098868-50rxns Abbexa 50 rxns 272 EUR

Plant Genomic DNA Kit

abx294004-50preps Abbexa 50 preps 398 EUR

Animal Genomic DNA Kit

abx294005-100preps Abbexa 100 preps 523 EUR

Animal Genomic DNA Kit

abx294005-50preps Abbexa 50 preps 398 EUR

Genomic DNA Isolation Kit

K2118-50 ApexBio 50 assays 321 EUR

Soil Genomic DNA Kit

K1411-250 Biovision 561 EUR

Soil Genomic DNA Kit

K1411-50 Biovision 316 EUR

Insect Genomic DNA Kit

K1412-250 Biovision 561 EUR

Insect Genomic DNA Kit

K1412-50 Biovision 316 EUR

Mollusc Genomic DNA Kit

K1413-250 Biovision 561 EUR

Mollusc Genomic DNA Kit

K1413-50 Biovision 316 EUR

We offer formed antibodies connected to an assortment of colorimetric and fluorescent names for use in recognition, filtration, arranging, and microscopy applications. Formed antibodies are delivered in an assortment of host creatures making them viable with a wide scope of immunochemical reagents. For those clients whose examination requires marking their own reagents, we offer neutralizer naming units for the formation of different names (biotin, FITC, CF™ names) to monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

t.spot covid
avitag biotin blocking cell proliferation reagent wst 1 ctgf elisa novex gel pcr machines Product tbr2 antibody western blot control

t.spot covid

HIGHLIGHTS

  • TSPOT.COVID is an ELISpot interferon gamma-release assay for SARS-CoV-2
  • TSPOT.COVID identifies a T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 and N peptides
  • 2–8 weeks post SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis TSPOT.COVID detected 98% of infections
  • In comparison, immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology detected 83% of infections in the same period
  • Cellular immune response activated sooner and lasted longer than antibodies

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the performance of the T-SPOT.COVID test for identifying SARS-CoV-2-responsive T-cells in participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods

The T-SPOT.COVID test uses ELISpot interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) methodology to measure T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 and nucleocapsid peptides. T-SPOT.COVID and anti-N immunoglobulin (Ig) G serology tests were performed on blood from 186 patients with nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-confirmed-SARS-CoV-2 infection and 100 control group participants.

Results

In the 2–8 weeks after NAAT-diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the T-SPOT.COVID test detected 98.4% (63 of 64) of infected participants, while anti-N IgG serology detected 82.8%. In the first 2 weeks after diagnosis, during adaptive immune response activation, there were less reactive T-SPOT.COVID responses (75.7%, 28 of 37 infected participants) and many less seropositive responses (32.4%). Response numbers tapered after 8 weeks; however, T-SPOT.COVID test continued to detect most participants with confirmed infection (83.6%, 56 of 67) and continued to out-perform serology (52.2%). T-SPOT.COVID response due to cross-reactive T cells was ruled out by demonstrating that, of 44 control group participants with T cells responsive to 4 human common cold coronavirus peptides, only 1 was T-SPOT.COVID reactive.

Conclusion

The T-SPOT.COVID test performed well in detecting SARS-CoV-2-sensitized T-cells over many months

Introduction

Long-term protection from infectious agents, such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is mediated by T cells and antibody-mediated immunity of the adaptive immune system (

Sette and Crotty, 2021

). The T-SPOT.COVID test was developed to identify the presence of SARS-CoV-2-responsive T cells.

T cells contribute to the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infections in many ways. T cells can identify past SARS-CoV-2 infections at a time when PCR tests would be negative and antibodies levels may be waning (

Dan et al., 2021

;

Gudbjartsson et al., 2020

;

Poland et al., 2020

). T cells can provide immune memory lasting for months (

Dan et al., 2021

) and perhaps years, as suggested by the discovery of T cells to the SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus 17 years after infection (

Le Bert et al., 2020

). T cells may act independently of antibodies to control a SARS-CoV-2 infection, as shown by the recovery of COVID-19 patients who lack detectable antibodies but have SARS-CoV-2-responsive T cells (

Gallais et al., 2021

;

Sekine et al., 2020

). T cells also show reactivity to numerous SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, so have the potential to protect against many SARS-CoV-2 variants (

Grifoni et al., 2020

;

Tarke et al., 2021

). T cell-based assays can probe the longevity of an immune response following a SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination (

Goletti et al., 2021

;

Liu et al., 2021

;

Reynolds et al., 2021

). These various roles suggest that a T cell assay can be a key contributor to SARS-CoV-2 investigations.

The T-SPOT.COVID test, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay, identifies T cells in peripheral blood that release interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in response to stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. The T-SPOT.COVID test builds on the T-SPOT platform (Oxford Immunotec) used worldwide for tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus testing and the research version, the T-SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 test (

Liu et al., 2021

;

t.spot covid
t.spot covid
Wyllie et al., 2021

). The T-SPOT.COVID ELISpot methodology is performed in many laboratories and offers a standardized comparison of T cell immunity among participants. In addition, ELISpot assays normalize the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), thus maintaining test effectiveness in participants with lymphopenia, a commonly reported condition in many COVID-19 patients (

Altmann and Boyton, 2020

) and immunosuppressed people.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the T-SPOT.COVID test to detect T cell responses in participants with or without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to compare the T-SPOT.COVID test results with anti-N immunoglobulin (Ig)G serology results in the first several months after infection.

Materials and Methods

2.1 Participant recruitment

Participants for this single-center, cross-sectional study were recruited from patients who had attended the outpatient Primacare medical center in Fall River, Massachusetts, USA, between November 30, 2020, and March 24, 2021, a time of high demand for COVID-19 testing. Among other healthcare services, Primacare provided COVID-19 testing to anyone wanting or required to be tested. The New England Center for Clinical Research (NECCR) invited participants to join the study if they had received a positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) at Primacare or if NECCR deemed them to be at low risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As this study was run independently from the participants’ healthcare providers, clinical data such as chest x-rays and hospitalizations records were not obtained. Informed consent and study approval were obtained from the Advarra institutional review board by NECCR at Primacare.
Confirmed-infection group: A NAAT, which detects the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was used to identify people infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the time of testing (

Rai et al., 2021

). Participants in the confirmed-infection group were recruited from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients who had had a positive SARS-CoV-2 NAAT result within the past 9 months. The date of the first positive NAAT result was considered the date of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood was drawn for Abbott SARS-CoV-2 chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) anti-N IgG serology and T-SPOT.COVID tests between 0 to 249 days after diagnosis.

The analysis of responses was divided into 3 time periods: 0 to 2 weeks after diagnosis (0 to 14 days); 2+ to 8 weeks after diagnosis (15 to 56 days); and 8+ weeks after diagnosis (57+ days).
Control group: Many SARS-CoV-2 studies use frozen pre-pandemic blood for control samples; however, the T-SPOT platform requires fresh blood to ensure consistent results. Therefore fresh blood was obtained from control group participants prospectively recruited from individuals with low risk of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Requirements for enrollment included no current or prior signs or symptoms of COVID-19, no known contact with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected individual, no prior history of a positive SARS-CoV-2 NAAT, no SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and no prior diagnosis with SARS-CoV-1 or Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). In addition, the BIOHIT HealthCare SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow anti-N IgM/IgG serology test was performed at enrollment, and the 1 person with a positive BIOHIT result was not enrolled. Blood was drawn at enrollment for testing with T-SPOT.COVID and the Abbott CMIA anti-N IgG serology test and anyone with a positive serology result was excluded from the control group.

2.2 T-SPOT.COVID test

The T-SPOT.COVID test includes over 250 SARS-CoV-2 peptides (15-mer peptides overlapping by 11 amino acids) in 2 antigen peptide pools; one pool contains peptides from the spike S1 protein, including the receptor-binding domain, and the other contains peptides from the nucleocapsid protein.
Blood samples for the T-SPOT.COVID test were processed and analyzed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, blood samples were drawn into lithium heparin tubes which were shipped overnight to Oxford Immunotec (Abingdon, UK) in temperature-controlled shipping boxes. Next, the T-Cell Xtend reagent (Oxford Immunotec) was added to the samples, and PBMCs were isolated by density gradient centrifugation, washed, counted, and 250 000 cells/well were plated into 4 wells of a 96-well plate.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody

3525-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 436.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Antibody

3531-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 171.82
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Envelope protein is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. It involves in several aspects of the virus's life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. E protein has membrane permeabilizing activity, which provides a possible rationale to inhibit in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Antibody

3531-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 436.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Envelope protein is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. It involves in several aspects of the virus's life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. E protein has membrane permeabilizing activity, which provides a possible rationale to inhibit in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody

9099-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody

9099-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody

9103-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody

9103-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP7 Antibody

9155-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP7 plays a role in viral RNA synthesis (3,4,5). It forms a hexadecamer with nsp8 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, it may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP7 Antibody

9155-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP7 plays a role in viral RNA synthesis (3,4,5). It forms a hexadecamer with nsp8 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, it may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane Antibody

9157-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2).The membrane (M) protein or matrix protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope (3). It is an integral membrane protein involved in the budding of the viral particles and interacts with S (Spike) protein. It involves in organization of the nucleoprotein inside, which includes many copies of the N (nucleocapsid) protein bound to the genomic RNA. The M protein holds dominant cellular immunogenicity and has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral responses, which suggests it would serve as a potential target in vaccine design (4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane Antibody

9157-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2).The membrane (M) protein or matrix protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope (3). It is an integral membrane protein involved in the budding of the viral particles and interacts with S (Spike) protein. It involves in organization of the nucleoprotein inside, which includes many copies of the N (nucleocapsid) protein bound to the genomic RNA. The M protein holds dominant cellular immunogenicity and has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral responses, which suggests it would serve as a potential target in vaccine design (4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP8 Antibody

9159-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP8 plays a role in viral RNA synthesis (3,4,5). Forms a hexadecamer with nsp7 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, it may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP8 Antibody

9159-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP8 plays a role in viral RNA synthesis (3,4,5). Forms a hexadecamer with nsp7 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, it may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP9 Antibody

9161-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP9 may participate in viral replication by acting as a ssRNA-binding protein (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP9 Antibody

9161-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP9 may participate in viral replication by acting as a ssRNA-binding protein (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP9 Antibody

9163-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP9 may participate in viral replication by acting as a ssRNA-binding protein (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP9 Antibody

9163-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP9 may participate in viral replication by acting as a ssRNA-binding protein (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane Antibody

9165-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2).The membrane (M) protein or matrix protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope (3). It is an integral membrane protein involved in the budding of the viral particles and interacts with S (Spike) protein. It involves in organization of the nucleoprotein inside, which includes many copies of the N (nucleocapsid) protein bound to the genomic RNA. The M protein holds dominant cellular immunogenicity and has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral responses, which suggests it would serve as a potential target in vaccine design (4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane Antibody

9165-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2).The membrane (M) protein or matrix protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope (3). It is an integral membrane protein involved in the budding of the viral particles and interacts with S (Spike) protein. It involves in organization of the nucleoprotein inside, which includes many copies of the N (nucleocapsid) protein bound to the genomic RNA. The M protein holds dominant cellular immunogenicity and has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral responses, which suggests it would serve as a potential target in vaccine design (4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP8 Antibody

9167-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP8 plays a role in viral RNA synthesis (3,4,5). Forms a hexadecamer with nsp7 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, it may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP8 Antibody

9167-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP8 plays a role in viral RNA synthesis (3,4,5). Forms a hexadecamer with nsp7 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, it may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Antibody

9169-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. The envelope protein is a small polypeptide that contains at least one α-helical transmembrane domain. It involves in several aspects of the virus's life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. E protein has membrane permeabilizing activity, which provides a possible rationale to inhibit in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic corona virus E proteins, and also viral replication (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Antibody

9169-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. The envelope protein is a small polypeptide that contains at least one α-helical transmembrane domain. It involves in several aspects of the virus's life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. E protein has membrane permeabilizing activity, which provides a possible rationale to inhibit in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic corona virus E proteins, and also viral replication (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP2 Antibody

9171-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP2 may play a role in the modulation of host cell survival signaling pathway by interacting with host PHB and PHB2. Indeed, these two proteins play a role in maintaining the functional integrity of the mitochondria and protecting cells from various stresses (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP2 Antibody

9171-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP2 may play a role in the modulation of host cell survival signaling pathway by interacting with host PHB and PHB2. Indeed, these two proteins play a role in maintaining the functional integrity of the mitochondria and protecting cells from various stresses (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP2 Antibody

9173-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP2 may play a role in the modulation of host cell survival signaling pathway by interacting with host PHB and PHB2. Indeed, these two proteins play a role in maintaining the functional integrity of the mitochondria and protecting cells from various stresses (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP2 Antibody

9173-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP2 may play a role in the modulation of host cell survival signaling pathway by interacting with host PHB and PHB2. Indeed, these two proteins play a role in maintaining the functional integrity of the mitochondria and protecting cells from various stresses (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP4 Antibody

9175-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP4 participates in the assembly of virally-induced cytoplasmic double-membrane vesicles necessary for viral replication (3)(4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP4 Antibody

9175-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP4 participates in the assembly of virally-induced cytoplasmic double-membrane vesicles necessary for viral replication (3)(4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP6 Antibody

9177-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP6 plays a role in the initial induction of autophagosomes from host reticulum endoplasmic. Later, it limits the expansion of these phagosomes that are no longer able to deliver viral components to lysosomes (3,4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP6 Antibody

9177-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP6 plays a role in the initial induction of autophagosomes from host reticulum endoplasmic. Later, it limits the expansion of these phagosomes that are no longer able to deliver viral components to lysosomes (3,4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP10 Antibody

9179-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP10 plays a pivotal role in viral transcription by stimulating both nsp14 3'-5' exoribonuclease and nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activities. Therefore it plays an essential role in viral mRNAs cap methylation (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) NSP10 Antibody

9179-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. NSP10 plays a pivotal role in viral transcription by stimulating both nsp14 3'-5' exoribonuclease and nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activities. Therefore it plays an essential role in viral mRNAs cap methylation (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ORF6 Antibody

9189-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. ORF6 disrupts cell nuclear import complex formation by tethering karyopherin alpha 2 and karyopherin beta 1 to the membrane. Retention of import factors at the ER/Golgi membrane leads to a loss of transport into the nucleus. Thereby it prevents STAT1 nuclear translocation in response to interferon signaling, thus blocking the expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) that display multiple antiviral activities(3).
AIRBORNE ALLERGY SCREEN KIT
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test for allergies airborne screen

Overview

During allergy skin tests, your skin is exposed to suspected allergy-causing substances (allergens) and is then observed for signs of an allergic reaction.

Along with your medical history, allergy tests may be able to confirm whether a particular substance you touch, breathe, or eat is causing symptoms.

 

Allergy skin tests are widely used to help diagnose allergic conditions, including:

  • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
  • Allergic asthma
  • Dermatitis (eczema)
  • Food allergies
  • Penicillin allergy
  • Bee venom allergy

Skin tests are generally safe for adults and children of all ages, including infants. In certain circumstances, though, skin tests aren’t recommended. Your doctor may advise against skin testing if you:

  • Have ever had a severe allergic reaction. You may be so sensitive to certain substances that even the tiny amounts used in skin tests could trigger a life-threatening reaction (anaphylaxis).
  • Take medications that could interfere with test results. These include antihistamines, many antidepressants and some heartburn medications. Your doctor may determine that it’s better for you to continue taking these medications than to temporarily discontinue them in preparation for a skin test.
  • Have certain skin conditions. If severe eczema or psoriasis affects large areas of skin on your arms and back — the usual testing sites — there may not be enough clear, uninvolved skin to do an effective test. Other skin conditions, such as dermatographism, can cause unreliable test results.

Blood tests (in vitro immunoglobulin E antibody tests) can be useful for those who shouldn’t or can’t undergo skin tests. Blood tests aren’t used for penicillin allergy.

In general, allergy skin tests are reliable for diagnosing allergies to airborne substances, such as pollen, pet dander and dust mites. Skin testing may help diagnose food allergies. But because food allergies can be complex, you may need additional tests or procedures.

Types of allergens

Allergens are substances that can cause an allergic reaction. There are three primary types of allergens:

  • Inhaled allergens affect the body when they come in contact with the lungs or membranes of the nostrils or throat. Pollen is the most common inhaled allergen.
  • Ingested allergens are present in certain foods, such as peanuts, soy, and seafood.
  • Contact allergens must come in contact with your skin to produce a reaction. An example of a reaction from a contact allergen is the rash and itching caused by poison ivy.

Allergy tests involve exposing you to a very small amount of a particular allergen and recording the reaction.

Insect sting allergy tests 

Why allergy testing is performed

Allergies affect more than 50 million people living in the USA, according to the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. Inhaled allergens are by far the most common type. Seasonal allergies and hay fever, which is an allergic response to pollen, affect more than 40 million Americans.

The World Allergy Organization estimates that asthma is responsible for 250,000 deaths annually. These deaths can be avoided with proper allergy care, as asthma is considered an allergic disease process.

How allergy testing is performed

An allergy test may involve either a skin test or a blood test. You may have to go on an elimination diet if your doctor thinks you might have a food allergy.

AIRBORNE ALLERGY SCREEN KIT
AIRBORNE ALLERGY SCREEN KIT

Skin tests

Skin tests are used to identify numerous potential allergens. This includes airborne, food-related, and contact allergens. The three types of skin tests are scratch, intradermal, and patch tests.

Your doctor will typically try a scratch test first. During this test, an allergen is placed in liquid, then that liquid is placed on a section of your skin with a special tool that lightly punctures the allergen into the skin’s surface. You’ll be closely monitored to see how your skin reacts to the foreign substance. If there’s localized redness, swelling, elevation, or itchiness of the skin over the test site, you’re allergic to that specific allergen.

If the scratch test is inconclusive, your doctor may order an intradermal skin test. This test requires injecting a tiny amount of allergen into the dermis layer of your skin. Again, your doctor will monitor your reaction.

Another form of skin test is the patch test (T.R.U.E. TESTTrusted Source). This involves using adhesive patches loaded with suspected allergens and placing these patches on your skin. The patches will remain on your body after you leave your doctor’s office. The patches are then reviewed at 48 hours after application and again at 72 to 96 hours after application.

Blood tests

If there’s a chance you’ll have a severe allergic reaction to a skin test, your doctor may call for a blood test. The blood is tested in a laboratory for the presence of antibodies that fight specific allergens. This test, called ImmunoCAP, is very successful in detecting IgE antibodies to major allergens.

Elimination diet

An elimination diet may help your doctor determine which foods are causing you to have an allergic reaction. It entails removing certain foods from your diet and later adding them back in. Your reactions will help determine which foods cause problems.

 

 

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